Bridge Plug In Oil & Fuel

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Bridge plugs are specialty plugging gadgets that may be set as short-term isolation instruments to be retrieved (retrievable) at a later date, or will be put in as everlasting plugging and isolation instruments (Drillable).

They are often run on a wireline or pipes designed to be set in both casing or tubing. There are additionally fashions accessible which might be set within the casing however will be run via the tubing string.

Bridge Plug Functions

A bridge plug is used when:

  • A number of perforated (or weak) zones positioned underneath the handled zone have to be protected.
  • The space between the handled zone and the underside of the nicely is simply too lengthy.
  • A number of zones and selective single zone treating and testing operations comparable to acidizing, fracturing, casing cementing, and testing.
  • Nicely Abandonment.
  • Remedial Cement Jobs.

When a retrievable bridge plug is used it’s lined with sand earlier than the slurry is pumped. On this means, it’s protected and the surplus cement within the casing will be drilled out with out dam­getting older it.

After retrieving Bridge plug, it’s necessary to carry out the required elimination, shut inspection of the components is important to establish any components which require substitute.

Specs

B.Ps are chosen relying on the next gadgets:

  • Casing dimension, grade & weight ( 9 5/8″, 7″, …..) that shall be set on.
  • Max Device OD.
  • Temperature score.
  • Stress score.

Bridge Plug Classes & Varieties

There are 2 primary classes of bridge plugs in accordance with their functions:

  • Drillable Sort
  • Retrievable Sort

Additionally we will categorize them in accordance with their setting mechanisms:

  • Wireline set sort
  • Mechanical set sort

Many manufacturing packers will be transformed into bridge plugs by slight modifications through the set up of some specialised instruments.

Drillable Sort

Drillable plugs are usually used to isolate the casing under the zone to be handled. They’re of comparable in design to the Cement Retainer, and they are often set on wireline or on a drill pipe. These plugs don’t permit movement via the device.

Retrievable Sort

Retrievable bridge plugs are simply run and operated instruments with the identical operate because the drillable sort. They’re usually run in a single journey (Tripping pipe) with the Retrievable Packers and retrieved later after the cement has been drilled out. Most operators will spot frac sand or acid-soluble calcium carbonate on high of the retrievable plug earlier than doing the cement squeeze job to stop cement from settling excessive of the retrievable bridge plug.

Retrievable Type Bridge Plug

Via Tubing Bridge Plug

The thru-tubing bridge plug (TTBP) gives a way of sealing off a sure zone (decrease) with out the necessity of retrieving tubing or killing (driller’s techniqueWait & weight technique) the higher producing zones. This in fact saves time and value and there shall be no want for a rig. It seals off the nicely with a excessive growth inflatable rubber phase that may cross via the completion tubing and seal off within the casing under.

The bridge plug is ready hydraulically so it may be run on coiled tubing or electrical wireline (using the thru-tubing electrical wireline setting device). The inflatable rubber will be set in most ID’s together with clean pipe, perforations, slotted casing liners, sand screens, and open holes. It could be used additionally for everlasting decrease zone shutoff or everlasting nicely abandonments.

Drilling & Milling Greatest Observe:

If the scenario is to carry out drilling or milling operations (junk mill), the really helpful observe is as follows:

  • Use a tricone Bit (IADC Bit Codes 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, and 3-1) – medium laborious formation. PDC Bit just isn’t most popular.
  • Greatest RPM shall be – 70 to 125
  • Use a mud viscosity of 60 CPS for cuttings elimination
  • Weight on bit – Apply 5-7 Klbs. till the highest finish of the mandrel is drilled away which is 4-5 inch. Then enhance 3 Klbs. of weight per inch of bit dimension to drill the remaining half. Instance: 4-1/2 bit will use 9,000-13,500 lbs. of weight.
  • Don’t apply weight in extra of the really helpful quantity. Unreasonable weight can tear out chunks of the Bridge Plug and performing one other journey shall be necessary to take away the chunks to allow additional penetration.
  • Drill Collars – shall be used to provide the mandatory WOB and Drilling bit stabilization. Instance: 4-1/2 through 5-1/2 (8-min.) 7 and bigger (12 min.).
  • Junk Baskets – A number of junk baskets shall be used within the drill string. If reverse circulation is deliberate, any instruments within the tubing or drill string ought to have sane ID of the bit so cuttings is not going to bridge.
  • Annular Velocity – 120 ft/min is to be thought of.
  • Junk basket above the bit.

Instruments Required For Setting and Servicing

  • Wireline Adapter Equipment
  • Stinger Seal Meeting
  • Tubing Centralizer
  • Mechanical Setting Device
  • Wireline Adapter Equipment for Flapper Backside
  • Hydraulic Setting Device

Bridge Plug Setting & Releasing Mechanisms

Definitely, the setting and retrieving mechanisms shall be completely different from one producer’s to different. However, we introduce a common process so that you can get the concept.

Stress Set

  1. Run to required depth whereas latched to its retrieving device.
  2. Decide up, rotate XX (1/4) flip to the proper on the plug, and decrease tubing to set decrease slips.
  3. Pull adequate rigidity to pack-off parts, slack off, after which choose up once more to guarantee plug setting (15,000 to twenty,000lbs).
  4. After setting the plug, slack off the tubing weight, maintain left-hand torque and choose as much as free the working device from the plug.

Compression Set

  1. Run to the required depth whereas latched to the retrieving device.
  2. Decide up, rotate XX (1/4) flip to the proper on the plug, and decrease tubing to set decrease slips.
  3. Slack off enough weight to pack-off parts, then choose as much as firmly set higher slips and slack off once more (15,000 – 20,000 lbs).
  4. After setting the plug, slack off the tubing weight, maintain left-hand torque and choose as much as free the working device from the plug.

Releasing Process

  1. Decrease tubing till the retrieving device tag on the bridge plug and latches on identical.
  2. Flow into to scrub out the sand from the plug slips.
  3. Open the bypass valve by slack off weight, maintain right-hand torque then choose up.
  4. Look ahead to stress equalization.
  5. Pull upward to launch the slips, calm down packing parts and re-latch.
  6. The plug might now be free to maneuver.
  7. If the plug is not going to launch conventionally, slack off re-set, then pull as much as shear J-pins and launch the plug (J-pins will shear at 40,000 to 60,000 lbs every).
  8. When you succeeded to shear the pins, the device gained’t have the ability to transfer downhole.

Essential Options For Bridge Plug To Suppose About

  • Many bridge plugs include a big inside by-pass to reduce the swabbing impact attributable to RIH & POOH. This bypass opens earlier than releasing the plug to make a stress equalization. Some BPs have additionally the flexibility to set and pack off the ingredient in rigidity.
  • The drillability of the device additionally needs to be thought of as to save lots of time and value of the operations.
  • Some instruments include the characteristic of changing to cement retainer or from mechanical set to wireline set.
  • Good clearance between the bridge plug and casing have to be thought of additionally in order to have quick and protected working operations with out sudden set.
  • There are some designs that stop motion attributable to opposed slips. This characteristic ensures that there shall be no motion in case the differential stress elevated in and course (upward or downward)
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